Manual for Air Raid Wardens - Circa 1942

From the VictorySiren Foundation collection.  Circa 1942















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This manual for Air Raid Wardens is issued by the Wisconsin Council of Defense as a textbook and as a reference manual. It deals with the specific duties of an Air Raid Warden and omits matters of a general nature covered by the four basic courses required for award of official insignia; namely, First Aid Course, Fire Defense Course, Gas Defense Course, and General Course. This manual has been prepared from materials included in official national OCD publications, data selected by the Wisconsin Council of Defense, and studies of other branches of the protective services. This manual should be studied carefully and kept available by every Air Raid Warden for ready reference.


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INTRODUCTION: Modern methods of war have created the urgent need for new forms of defense, requiring the organization of the civilian population to cooperate with the military and the local government services such as the police and fire departments.

This is necessary to preserve the full effectiveness of our war effort in spite of all attempts through attack to destroy it. In the system of civilian defense, the Air Raid Warden occupies the key position. He is the field officer under whose supervision the efforts of the civilian population are directed in the tremendous task of effective defense. Through the Air Raid Wardens, civilian activity is coordinated with that of the police and fire departments and other vital services. It is therefore of utmost importance that each Air Raid Warden be thoroughly familiar with all phases of civilian defense operations and with the duties and functions of other officials and agencies engaged with him in the system of civilian defense. He must also know the quickest and most effective methods of calling for aid from these services.

This manual has been prepared in an effort to make available to the Air Raid Warden the essential information which he must have in order to do his job effectively. Its contents should be thoroughly mastered in connection with the course of instruction which Air Raid Wardens receive. In addition, it will serve as a reference manual to assist in solving problems that will arise from time to time as the Air Raid Warden performs the duties and tasks assigned to him.

CIVILIAN ATTACKS: Modern warfare differs from that of the past in that it involves to a greater extent than ever before, attacks on military objectives located in civilian areas. This is, in effect, attack on civilian population. Because this also is a war of machines as well as of men, attacks upon production plants and the areas in which they are located are of much more importance than in any past wars. Disruption of communication and transportation lines far from the actual battle lines is also important.

PURPOSE OF CIVILIAN ATTACKS: In this war, we can expect enemy attacks to be made upon our civilian population either through air raids or sabotage. The purpose of air raids or attacks of any kind in civilian population areas are: (1) to destroy military objectives located in such areas; (2) to interrupt communications; (3) to destroy persons and property; and (4) to stop production and industry in general. All such attacks lessen the strength of a nation by lowering the morale of its civilian population. The killing or wounding of civilians accomplishes two objectives. It reduces the number of workers available to perform essential tasks, and also places an additional burden on the civilian population in caring for its dead and wounded. These attacks are also designed to cause serious work stoppage in plants and factories by frequent air raid alarms, with the resulting panic and confusion.

DEFENSE AGAINST CIVILIAN ATTACKS: Defense is divided into two main branches. Active defense against air attacks is the task of the military forces using anti-aircraft batteries and interceptor planes. Passive defense is the civilian function. It includes the preparation and use of every normal facility, augmented by voluntary action of the citizens through the civilian defense organization, to make effective these facilities, in order to prevent and minimize damage from attack.

Civilian defense in the United States is provided for in three ways. First, regularly constituted authorities have passed laws and ordinances and made appropriations to cover the cost of defense, each in its own particular sphere or jurisdiction. Second, under a recent act of Congress, State Councils of Defense have been authorized, and by the same authority County Councils of Defense have been established. These County Councils of Defense have advisory duties, counselling regularly constituted authorities in matters pertaining to civilian defense. These councils also have power to receive funds and to expend them. Their primary duties, however, are advisory. Third, the President created the Office of Civilian Defense by executive orders, with two main functions: one, to plan defense, acting in cooperation with the various defense councils and normal governmental agencies; the other, to execute those plans. It is basically a coordinating office to guide and integrate the actions of local defense councils and governmental agencies. The Air Raid Warden is one of the important means through which these plans are carried out.

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Air raids may be designed to cause widespread destruction and devastation, or to spread war gases, or as nuisance raids. Gas attacks are primarily designed to induce fear among the civilian population. Adequate preparation against them is one of the soundest methods of prevention of panic, since if the people know about gas and methods of protection against it, gas raids will be so ineffective that the enemy will make little use of them.

Kinds of Bombs: There are three types of bombs ordinarily used in air raids, high explosive, incendiary, and chemical bombs.

High Explosive Bombs: These can be either the contact, the delayed action, or the time variety. The contact bomb explodes on impact with the surface of any object which it strikes. These bombs generally have a very light shell and scatter fragments in every direction. They are not designed primarily for penetration. Delayed action bombs will vary anywhere from moderate size up to two tons in weight, and have a delayed fuse, so that upon impact, the firing train is set in motion in the forepart of the bomb, which takes a few seconds to release the charge; that is, enough time to allow the bomb to penetrate into the object it hits. If it hits a building, it will go through the walls or roof into the interior. If it strikes on the ground, it produces a crater and creates a disruption of underground work for some distance around. The time bomb is a more devilish contrivance in that no one knows when the explosion is going to occur, whether in a few minutes, a few days, or a few weeks. Of course, it is a source of danger as soon as it strikes. It calls for roping off of the surrounding area and the evacuation of all buildings in a 300 foot radius. Such a bomb is dangerous, and is left to specially trained army units to handle. However, until the army units arrive, it is the duty of the civilian workers to protect life and property. The Air Raid Warden must immediately arrange the evacuation of the area, and prohibit unauthorized persons from entering it. Also he must provide ready access to official O.C.D. services. The army has trained Bomb Reconnaissance Agents who will determine the steps to be taken.

Incendiary Bombs: The second type of bomb is the incendiary. Incendiary bombs are of several varieties, the most common of which is the magnesium bomb. Next most commonly used are the thermit and the oil bombs. There are also phosphorous bombs, but these are neither as common nor as effective as the others, and are used mainly in setting fire to fields of grain and other inflammable substances. The ordinary magnesium bomb weighs about two pounds. Bombers carry from 1,000 to 2,000 of them. They cannot be aimed accurately, and scatter when dropped, covering a large area. Several hundred bombs may simultaneously strike buildings. If only a few of these start fires, a serious problem for the fire-fighting forces will arise. It is important, therefore, that Air Raid Wardens, Fire Watchers and every citizen be trained in the methods of dealing with incendiary bombs.

The action of the incendiary can be briefly described. The thermit, which supplies its own oxygen, cannot be extinguished, and burns for a minute or less. This is long enough, however, to set fire to the magnesium casing, which, in turn, may burn from fifteen to twenty minutes. The casing does require an outside source of oxygen for the burning process, and therefore it can be smothered. The quickest possible way of dealing with a fire bomb (now adopted by O.C.D.) is to use a full jet of water directly on the bomb. The jet does, in a matter of seconds, the work that required several minutes when the former spray technique was used. By using the jet, several bombs lying nearby can be dealt with before any of them has time to do material damage.

Chemical Bombs: The third type of bomb is that using chemical agents. This is commonly known as the gas bomb. There are two types: (1) the volatile gas bomb, and (2) the persistent gas bomb. The volatile, or non-persistent gases act immediately, the most common of them being phosgene, a throat and lung irritant. The persistent gases are more deadly. Two common types are mustard and lewisite, which penetrate clothing and even the leather of shoes, causing blisters which, when caused by lewisite, develop later into deep wounds requiring long hospitalization of the victims.

EFFECT OF BOMBS: The high explosive bombs do not need to make a direct hit in order to cause damage. There are practically no structures built, outside of a very few types of military fortifications, which can stand the direct hit of even a few hundred pounds of high explosive bombs. There is a surrounding blast effect also, which results in shattering glass windows for several hundreds of feet. The action is freakish, since the blast from a bomb explodes outward from the bomb and is followed by a recurring suction of reverse action of air so that, while windows shatter anywhere within the effective radius of the explosion, the windows may be blown either in or out. The contact bomb is used for killing and injuring persons who are out in the open and is commonly employed against troops in formation or wherever the bombers can injure a large number of people through the scattering of fragments from a bomb exploding on the surface. Experience has shown that flying glass is one of the most deadly resulting effects of high explosive bombs. In the same way, bombs striking the ground do not require a direct hit because, when a crater is formed, underground utilities are damaged for a considerable distance from the point of explosion. Unexploded bombs (UXB) require the immediate evacuation of persons in the neighborhood. The Air Raid Warden should see to it that the evacuees leave non-essentials and remain only long enough to take such things with them as will be urgently needed. The incendiary bombs have the primary purpose of spreading fires, which not only cause damage in themselves, but also light up the objective. Even though an area is blacked out, visibility for later attacks may be thus secured. Incendiary bombs are also used to some extent in preliminary attacks, by scattering them over a wide area to thin out firefighting forces. The main body of the attack then strikes at the real objective, a factory, or some other place of military importance.

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The position of the Air Raid Warden, and especially that of the Senior Air Raid Warden, is one of responsibility and trust. The Senior Air Raid Warden is in command during an emergency within his block until special crews arrive to take charge at an incident. An Air Raid Warden must lead, direct, and help the people entrusted to his care. It is the responsibility of the Air Raid Warden to see that everything possible is done to protect and safeguard the homes and citizens within his block from the hazards created by attacks from the air.

An Air Raid Warden has specified duties to perform. He must study them, review them, and practice them over and over, so that he can carry out those duties in an air raid with speed and correctness. He must know his block as well as others know their own homes. He must know his people well, so that in any time of stress, he may easily reassure and calm them. Although the Air Raid Warden is not a policeman, a fireman, or a doctor, his duties are related to theirs. The position of Air Raid Warden is a position of leadership and trust, and demands the greatest degree of effort and diligence in the discharge of its duties.

Sources of Information: For information concerning special problems, the Air Raid Warden may gain valuable assistance from his superior officers, who have access to all of the professional services. In addition, doctors or nurses in the block, pharmacists, scout masters, engineers, plant superintendents, janitors, and other O.C.D. workers are often sources of helpful suggestions and information. It is an excellent idea to list the telephone numbers of all such sources and persons.

Duty to Advise with Official Source: When the Warder. is in doubt as to the extent of his authority, or any other important problem connected with his duties, he should consult his superior officers in the Civilian Defense organization. The Warden should list the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of those officers whom he will have to contact most frequently.

Explanation of Rules: The Air Raid Warden must be able to explain the rules governing the operation of the Civilian Defense organization and their execution to all. The Senior Air Raid Warden must learn the duties of all workers responsible to him, and see to it that these duties are performed. The Warden must be a primary source of information and guidance to the public.

Limits of the Warden's Authority: The Air Raid Warden normally has no police powers other than those possessed by every citizen, such as the right to arrest a person actually committing a crime, and the power to prevent a breach of the peace. He is not a fireman, although he has some fire-fighting duties. Although he can assist in rendering first aid, the Air Raid Warden is not a doctor, and should not attempt to act as one. He does not command any special services outside his own block, but guides such services to the points in his block where they are needed.

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RELATION TO THE PUBLIC: One of the most important of the Warden's duties is to be helpful, particularly to the untrained civilians of his block. To be helpful, the Air Raid Warden must know his block in detail. A large map of the block should be carefully prepared, which will indicate the locations of the important factors in civilian defense specified in that block. The Warden must know this information by heart. In addition, he should see that signs are placed to guide strangers and neighbors to places of safety in time of danger.

The Air Raid Warden must familiarize himself with the organization of all civilian defense activities and services, and know the most rapid method of communication with each.

In the line of duty, the Air Raid Warden will find many opportunities to be helpful to persons in his block. In the event of a blackout, the Warden will patrol the block to make sure that the blackout is complete, and will notify householders of any light showing, and require them to correct this condition. Also, the Warden will advise all persons in the open where to find the nearest shelter, and will assist in bringing persons who are infirm, or need assistance, and those who have lost their way, to locations of safety. He will assist in rendering first aid to the injured.

The Warden must know all of the people in his block. He must note the number of families, the number of individuals, the location of the aged, the confined, the children, and the sick. He must know where to find those specially qualified to assist him in time of emergency, such as nurses, doctors, scout masters, janitors, and others able to comfort and provide needed assistance. He must know the personalities of those he will work with and each individual's needs and characteristics. The Air Raid Warden will help maintain civilian morale by explaining to the people of his block the rules and regulations for civilian defense, so that these rules will be understood and obeyed.

It is also of importance that the Warden make the people of his block acquainted with each other, as well as knowing them himself. Civilian defense is a highly cooperative undertaking, and great progress in cooperation can be made where a spirit of neighborliness prevails. Opportunities to promote this spirit should not be overlooked.

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RELATION TO REGULARLY CONSTITUTED AUTHORITIES: It is emphasized again that the Air Raid Warden does not have the duties or the authority of a policeman or fireman. His duties are related to both of these, however.

Police Department: Control of pedestrians and traffic is the legal responsibility of the Police Force. The Warden will assist the police, under their direction, in the control and handling of traffic. The Air Raid Warden will assist in explaining police instructions to the public and to those administering the work. He does not have any authority over the police, but will assist and cooperate with them in every way. '

Fire Department: As has been pointed out, the Warden is not a fireman but has duties closely allied to those of the Fire Department.

The Warden must be familiar with the local fire-fighting organization, the location of stations and call boxes within his block and the surrounding territory. In case roads or streets are blocked by debris or contaminated by gas, the Warden must warn all persons against entering. Only those whose official duties require them to do so are to be allowed access. Where streets are blocked, the Warden should be in a position to give information as to alternative routes through his block. The instruction which he receives in his fire defense training course will enable him to aid the Fire Department greatly in reducing the number of major fires.

Emergency Medical Services: Air Raid Wardens are given instructions in first aid, enabling them to assist the injured in accordance with those instructions until regularly qualified medical services can take over. The Warden will also assist the regular medical authorities as they may direct.

Utility Services: It is not contemplated that the Air Raid Warden will be called upon to cope with major damage to such utilities as water, gas, electricity and sewage, outside of minor incidents within homes. In all cases of damage to utilities outside homes, it shall be the duty of the Warden to transmit immediately a report, through the proper communication channels, asking for aid from the professional emergency crews organized throughout the district and dispatched by the Control Center. The Air Raid Warden shall see that areas surrounding such damaged utilities are closed to the public, and that ready access to these areas is provided to emergency crews immediately upon their arrival on the scene. He must keep in mind that the danger of injury or fatality to inexperienced, although good-intentioned volunteers, is extremely great in such cases. The possibility of still further damage to the utility resulting from improper techniques is also an important factor. All cases of damage to utilities must be immediately reported through proper channels.

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RELATION TO THE ORGANIZATION: The Air Raid Warden must keep in mind the fact that he is an integral and important part of an organization. The successful functioning of this organization depends upon the alert cooperation of every member. It is vital that the Air Raid Warden be thoroughly familiar with the duties of every member of his block organization. Air Raid Wardens in each block are responsible directly to the Senior Air Raid Warden. Senior Air Raid Wardens are in turn responsible to Precinct and Zone Wardens and the Chief of the Warden Service.

Senior Air Raid Warden: The Senior Air Raid Warden is the officer in the block directly responsible for the performance of those emergency duties assigned to Air Raid Wardens as set forth in this manual.

To become a Senior Air Raid Warden, one must be elected by the people in the block, and should possess the following qualifications: He must be trustworthy and competent, and must possess sound judgment. It is vitally essential that he conduct himself so as to secure the confidence of his neighbors. The Senior Air Raid Warden must be in good health with no physical handicaps, and must possess the qualities of leadership and executive ability. He must be able to read, write, and interpret instructions, and must have the ability to work in harmony with other persons and services. Above all, he must have the ability to remain cool and collected during an emergency.

The Senior Air Raid Warden must have taken and passed the four general courses of instruction in Civilian Defense; namely, the Civilian Defense General Course, the Fire Defense Course, the Civilian Defense First Aid Course, and the Gas Defense Course. In addition, he should successfully complete a special course of training for Air Raid Wardens dealing with the material included in this manual, to fit him for his important responsibilities. The Senior Air Raid Warden is directly responsible for the proper discharge of the specific duties of the Air Raid Wardens, Fire Watchers, and Messengers of his block.

AIR RAID WARDENS: Each Senior Air Raid Warden must have as assistants from three to six Wardens. The exact number depends upon the population and size of the block. Following an air raid warning, all Wardens scheduled at the time must report to the Senior Air Raid Warden's Post. Wardens will be designated as Second Warden, Third Warden, and Fourth Warden, and the command of the Post will succeed in that order. In addition, certain buildings in the block, housing a large number of people in residence or at work, will have Building Wardens. The Building Warden will concern himself only with matters pertaining to his own building, and will act under the direction of the Senior Air Raid Warden of his block.

FIRE WATCHERS: The Air Raid Warden, and particularly the Senior Air Raid Warden, must direct Fire Watchers in the selection of their stations in the block. Fire Watchers should be selected from the Senior Warden's block, if possible, and they should be under the supervision and direction of the Senior Air Raid Warden. The Fire Watcher should first see that the occupants of the building struck are informed, and then report the fall of incendiary bombs through his Warden's Post to the Control Center. He then should take steps to put out any fires which may have started. Special attention must be given to places where large quantities of inflammable materials are concentrated. It is important that stations be located so that they can be quickly reached.

Messengers: Either boys or girls over sixteen years of age may be designated as messengers. They will receive special training and will be certified by the Office of Civilian Defense. Messengers will perform many emergency duties, such as carrying messages to nearby posts or to report centers when telephone service fails, directing people to safety, helping in the evacuation of persons, reuniting families separated during an air raid, and helping in any of the rescue and emergency services incident to an attack. They should be thoroughly familiar with the geography of their blocks and the adjacent parts of the community and be able to find their way under all conditions, including those of blackouts.

The question of transportation is one which will depend entirely upon the local circumstances and is therefore left to local initiative. It should be emphasized, however, that the operation of bicycles during blackouts is extremely hazardous, and the practice should be eliminated as far as possible. Also, automobiles or other conveyances operated by Messengers, except in officially authorized cases, will not be allowed to operate during the blackouts, or in any manner which might cause interference with vehicles of vital service organizations. Messengers attached to the Senior Warden's Post should be selected from the same block, if possible. At least two messengers should be available at each post and Medical Casualty Station, and a sufficient group attached to the Staff at the Control Center so that a two-way service will function at all times.

Insignia: Members of the various services within the block organization who have been certified, should wear the official insignia of their offices when on duty. The official insignia for the various offices and services as adopted by the Office of Civilian Defense (other than the Warden Service) are shown as follows:

[ Color Insignia Chart ]

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Roster Forms: A complete file of roster forms or cards, including information concerning all families and individuals in the block, must be kept at the Senior Air Raid Warden's Post. These cards must include information concerning all aged and infirm persons and children under five years of age, as well as those physically or mentally handicapped. Arrangements should be made to provide these persons with help in time of emergency if necessary. All persons with special training, useful in civilian defense, should be registered. This includes doctors, nurses, persons qualified to give first aid, pharmacists, engineers, draughtsmen, plumbers, electricians, and others. The ability and availability of all such persons should be recorded. The location of drug stores, hospitals, and casualty stations should be listed. All these records should be kept at the Post.

Physical Survey: When the map described in the section of this manual on Block Geography has been prepared, the Air Raid Warden must make himself thoroughly familiar with the information contained in it. With the map in mind, the Senior Air Raid Warden should make a survey of his block to familiarize himself with the physical appearance of the objects described or symbolized on the map. This is essential to enable him to visualize any condition concerning such information communicated to him in time of emergency. In addition, the following information should be obtained from each household: Ability and willingness to shelter strangers for the duration of an air raid alarm; and ability and willingness to shelter temporarily those made" homeless by incidents.

Each household should be checked for the following :

Adequate Refuge Room: This room should be checked for size, ventilation, and adequate blackout preparation. It is recommended that each refuge room be equipped with some forms of diversion, such as games, books, and a radio, as well as food, water and comfort facilities for three or four hour periods.

Elimination of Fire Hazards: The Warden should be sure that no inflammable materials are stored in attics. So far as is practical, attics should be cleared of all articles. Advice should be given to every householder as to the common fire hazards, the usual tools useful in fighting fires (such as shovels, hoes, rakes, and hand axes), the special materials with which to handle incendiaries (such as sand supply and containers of water), the personal equipment needed (such as heavy jacket, work slacks, gloves and goggles), the convenient and best location in the house for these supplies, and other practical advice to minimize danger from fires. Attics which are not readily accessible should be made as easy to reach as possible (by step ladder, for example).

The Air Raid Warden should assist the people in his block in preparing and furnishing their refuge rooms. He should advise those who might be left alone during an air raid to seek -shelter with their neighbors. He should make arrangements to see that aged and infirm people are not left alone during a raid. Also, he should report the location of the Senior Air Raid Warden's Post to each household in the block. He should advise the people not to use the telephone during an air raid, and should keep them informed concerning rules and regulations for civilian defense as they are issued. They should be notified that only calls for assistance from the officially designated phone or phones in each block will be recognized or given right of way in an emergency.

The Posting of Markers: The Warden's Post must be plainly marked for the public, using the approved insignia. Small signs should be placed at various points within the block to show how to reach it. Luminescent signs, made with special paint, are advisable, since they are visible during a blackout to persons nearby. Such paints, known as luminescent paint, are readily obtainable at hardware and paint stores.

Practice Drills: The Air Raid Warden should make a test blackout of each building in the block to be sure that an effective blackout can be made within five minutes of the sounding of the air raid warning. Such tests, however, must not extend - beyond individual buildings or affect public outside lighting, as any general blackout can only be held as approved by the army. If possible, the Senior Air Raid Warden should arrange for practice drills for the block organization, to be held in his block. Prior to these practice drills, the residents of the block should have received information concerning the location of refuge rooms and shelters. Practice drills for the Civilian Defense personnel of the block should be held frequently so that each member becomes thoroughly familiar with his duties in time of emergency.

Volunteer Enrollment: It is the duty of the Senior Air Raid Warden to contact the people of his block to enlist volunteers to serve in the various positions of the block organization. A strong effort should be made to induce those persons best qualified to enroll for volunteer service in the block. The special skills and qualifications of such persons and their preferences as to type of work should be carefully noted. This information should be considered in making nominations through the Volunteer Registration Office of Civilian Defense. Arrangements will then be made by the County Training Schools to provide special training for such persons.

Assignment of Block Forces: The Senior Air Raid Warden, before any emergency arises, must provide for the assignments of the members of his organization during an air raid. Plans must be worked out so that the entire block will be adequately patrolled by the Wardens. In this connection, the Senior Warden must make an accurate check of the hours each day that each of the workers in his block can be available for duty.

The Senior Air Raid Warden must determine in advance -the most advantageous posts for Fire Watchers so that all portions of the block can be adequately guarded. It should be borne in mind that someone must be on duty at the Post constantly during an emergency to handle reports. An effort should be made to see that Messengers are provided at the Post and else where in the block where they may be needed. On an "Alert" or practice drill an adult messenger can be assigned to transmit telephone messages at the Post.

OPERATIONS DURING ATTACK: The air raid warning signal as established in each community shall be thoroughly familiarized by Air Raid Wardens. In a properly organized post, an Air Raid Warden will be at or near his beat when the public warning is sounded by the siren. The several minutes' warning provided by the siren gives the warden sufficient time to get on his beat to discharge this prime responsibility when the raid occurs. His other public duties, such as controlling traffic, enforcing blackouts, assisting persons and preventing panic, cannot be started until the siren sounds and will be discharged as completely as possible between the siren signal and the first incident on his beat.

NO advance warning should be given an Air Raid Warden.

The essential duties of a Senior Warden just prior to and during an actual raid (disbursing equipment, verifying beat coverage, and transmitting reports of incidents) all commence after the wardens have gone into action. Accordingly, NO advance warning should be necessary.

The dependence of the civilian defense organizations upon the telephone system for vital communication requirements allows NO calling arrangement that might congest the telephone system. The calling arrangement that one warden in each precinct be warned and that he in turn telephone three other wardens, who in turn will warn the remaining wardens, is one that is most likely to jam all telephone wires and completely disrupt telephone communications.

Posting of Block Forces: All Wardens scheduled at the time in the block must report to the Post at the sound of the air raid warning. The Senior Warden will remain at the Post to receive and forward messages until some other person such as an adult Messenger is so assigned; the other Wardens will patrol the block. All should wear the official arm bands indicating their branch of the service. The Air Raid Warden's whistle should not be blown except by repeated short blasts to draw attention to his presence in an emergency. A long steady whistle blast will be recognized as a call for assistance. The whistle must not be used to sound a general warning. If the Warden is not in his own block when an air raid occurs, he should identify himself to the Air Raid Warden of the block in which he finds himself. If an incident occurs there, the local Warden may need trained help. The Senior Air Raid Warden has the responsibility of assigning other workers in his block to their posts during an attack. Fire Watchers must be posted at strategic positions commanding a wide view of the block to detect fires, especially in untenanted premises.

Duties of the Warden on Patrol: On patrol, the duty of the Warden is to clear the streets. People should be told to go to their homes, or if they cannot reach them within five minutes, they should be directed to some home or to one of the shelter locations in the vicinity. The Warden should stop all but official traffic, and should see that drivers park their cars properly at curbs. Wide openings must be left opposite fire plugs. All animals found on the streets should be securely tied in the most protected spot available.

When the air raid warning sounds after dark, the blackout regulations must be enforced. The Air Raid Warden must warn householders at once of any lights showing, and if such lights are not immediately turned out or covered, this fact should be reported to the Warden's Post. The condition of street and traffic lights should be reported to the Warden's Post. Shop signs still illuminated should be reported to the occupant, and if not turned off immediately, should be reported to the Post.

The Air Raid Warden should not leave his block to help a neighboring block, leaving his own block unprotected. His duty is to his own block, and he should not risk its safety for the welfare of an individual. The Senior Air Raid Warden must ascertain that all Fire Watchers are at their stations and that fire-fighting devices and supplies are ready for use. When the streets are cleared and all lights are covered or extinguished, and Fire Watchers have been posted, the Wardens, except those on duty at the Post, should take cover in doorways or other protected places and observe developments.

If no bombs are dropped, or no other incidents occur in the block, the duty of the Warden will be to guide Messengers, first aid, and other official parties passing through the block; to direct fire patrols to be alert for gas warnings and to prevent people from leaving their homes and shelters. One Warden or other assigned person must always remain on duty at the Post to direct arriving services and to answer the telephone and forward messages.

If small incendiary bombs lodge on top of, or penetrate buildings, the Warden's duty is to warn the occupants and get the Fire Watchers or other trained persons to deal with the bombs. The locations of these bombs should be reported immediately to the Warden's Post.

If a bomb explodes in the block the Warden must first report to his Post so that a preliminary call can be made to the Control Center. He must then quickly reconnoiter to determine the exact location and extent of damage, and then report accurately to the Post so that a more detailed report can be telephoned to the Control Center. After this report is made, he should give what help and first aid he can to any persons injured by the blast. If a bomb fails to explode or an explosion cannot be detected above the crash caused by the fall, the Warden must report the possibility of an unexploded bomb. It may be a dud, a time bomb, or a gas bomb. As the Warden approaches the point of fall, he must be especially alert for the presence of gas. If no gas is present, the location and probable size of the bomb, and the damage caused by the fall should be immediately reported to the Post. People in nearby houses must be evacuated and conducted, or directed, to other places of shelter. The streets leading to the place of fall should be roped off if there is time. Volunteers may be pressed into service for this work.

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1. In the event of use of war gas or other toxic substances by the enemy during an air raid, the responsibility for sounding the alarm rests with the Warden, as defined in the Air Raid Warden's Handbook. The procedure described below will be followed:

2. If gas is used by the enemy its effect will be localized, and it is desired to avoid a general alarm because of this fact. Wardens, therefore, should be carefully trained in the identification of gases, and should be equipped with standard alarms as soon as practicable. The use of the "sniff-set" is urged in training for identification.


3. Presence of gas will be made known by percussion sounds, such as a wooden racket noisemaker, beating upon drums, metal objects, or wood in a rapid manner. In the event that a Warden has no standard device to sound an alarm when the presence of gas is detected, he can sound such an alarm by beating upon garbage pails or ash cans with sticks, beating upon metal pipes or by other means which his own ingenuity will suggest. The sound should be distinctive, and the people of the Warden's sector should be trained to recognize clearly the alarm to be used.

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4. The Warden will not sound the gas alarm unless he detects the actual presence of gas within the limits of his own sector. During an air raid he should be continually on the alert for gas. Every bomb not definitely identified as high explosive or incendiary, should be carefully investigated for the presence of gas.

5. In the event a gas alarm is sounded in a neighboring sector, the Warden will proceed as follows: He will first determine the direction of the wind. If the wind is blowing from him toward the direction of the alarm, he will remain on the alert but take no further action. If the wind is blowing from the direction of the alarm, or approximately so, he will walk into the wind toward the sound, carefully testing for gas en route, but will proceed no farther than the limit of his own sector. He will remain there, if possible, until the presence of gas is noted and will then sound the alarm for his own sector. He will then immediately report the presence of gas to the Control Center, identifying it as to character, if possible.


6. Everyone whose duties do not absolutely require that he remain outdoors will go in shelter, shut tightly all doors and windows, and quench all fires that would create a draft. Those persons equipped with gas masks will put them on. If Wardens, Fire Watchers, and others do not have masks, they will take such emergency precautions as are available.

7. If liquid vesicants are present in the sector, the area should be roped off and marked with signs, pending the arrival of the Decontamination Squads. If it is simply marked, it should also be patrolled. Since the Wardens will probably be without protective clothing,

the contaminated area should be given a wide berth while roping, marking, or patrolling. The Warden will observe the progress of the work of decontamination, using great care to keep at a distance.

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8. Since gas alarms are localized, the general air raid all clear signal may be sounded before the work of Decontamination Squads is finished or before gas has cleared the sector. Therefore, everyone in the sector should be instructed to remain indoors after a gas alarm has been given, no matter whether the general air raid all clear sounds or not. The all clear for gas will also be sounded locally by three long blasts on the Warden's whistle or by notification of individual families in the area.

9. The all clear for gas may be sounded at any time the area is clear, regardless of the general air raid all clear signal.


1. War gases stay close to the ground, for they are heavier than air. To get out of a gassed area, simply walk against the wind or go upstairs.

2. Gas is irritating and annoying to the eyes, nose, lungs, or to the skin, but it is usually harmless if you do not become panicky but promptly leave the gas area and cleanse yourself. A soldier must put on a mask where it is necessary to remain in the contaminated area, but a civilian can go up on the second or third floor and literally ignore it if the windows are kept closed.

3. If the gas should get on your skin, you can prevent it from doing much harm by sponging it off as quickly as possible with a piece of clothing, such as a handkerchief, and applying some neutralizing substance, followed by a thorough bath, preferably a shower, with common laundry soap and water.

4. Some gases are spread as oily droplets which blister and burn the skin and eyes. If you are outside when gas is used do not look up. Tear off a piece of clothing or use a handkerchief to blot any drops of liquid from your skin and throw the contaminated cloth away. Blot; do not rub, as rubbing will spread the liquid. Then go home, if it is nearby, or to the nearest place where you can wash immediately with soap and water and cleanse yourself in the following manner:

a. Remove all outer clothing outside the house, since gas can be transmitted to others from contaminated clothing. Put it preferably in a covered garbage pail.

b. Apply one of the following effective household remedies to the part of your skin that has been contaminated: Chlorox or similar household bleach (for mustard) ; peroxide of hydrogen (for Lewisite) ; paste or solution of baking soda if you have no peroxide or bleach. If you do not know the gas, use both peroxide and bleach. Keep bleach and peroxide out of the eyes. Do not waste time looking for those remedies; bathe immediately if they are not at hand.

c. After entering the house, wash the bleach or peroxide from hands with laundry soap and water, and then wash the face. Remove the underclothing, place it in a covered garbage pail, and enter the bathroom.

d. Irrigate the eyes with large amounts of lukewarm 2 percent solution of baking soda (one tablespoonful to a quart of water), or else with plain water. Use an ordinary irrigating douche bag or an eye irrigator. If you do not have these, let plain warm water pour into the eyes from the shower, washing them thoroughly. Do not press or rub the eyes.

e. Lastly, take a shower, using laundry soap and hot water.

f. If the nose and throat feel irritated, wash them out also with baking soda solution. g. If your chest feels heavy and oppressed, if you have any trouble breathing, or if cigarette smoke becomes distasteful, lie down and stay perfectly still until a doctor sees you.

h. If blisters develop, be careful not to break them, and call a doctor.


Soldiers require gas masks because they must remain in the contaminated area. Civilians can get out of the gassed area or get above the level of the gas, where they do not need gas masks or protective clothing.

Injured persons who are gassed require decontamination before they can be admitted to hospitals. All other civilians can best prevent any serious injury by promptly helping themselves in the manner outlined, using a kitchen or bathroom, laundry soap and water, and a few materials found in every household.

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Damage to Utility Equipment

In the event that equipment belonging to the utility companies is damaged, a guard should be posted and the Control Center notified of the type and extent of the damage. In the case of broken water mains, leaking or burning gas mains, or damaged electric wires, it would be extremely dangerous to handle such equipment. 110-volt house service wires have often caused serious injury or death; the much higher voltages carried by utility and street lighting systems are almost certain to cause serious injury or death to anyone coming in contact with them. The handling of all utilities should be left to those specially trained in that field.

If large incendiary bombs are dropped, or fires are started by enemy agents, their location and character must be reported immediately to the Post. Then the fire must be fought with whatever local assistance can be obtained, until the fire-fighting service arrives.

Reporting of Incidents: Air Raid Wardens should investigate all incidents in pairs where possible, one Warden to remain temporarily in charge, the other to make a report to the Post. In case of fire, the extent, location, cause (if known), and the amount of help needed should be given in the report. The Senior Air Raid Warden's Post should keep the Control Center informed accurately and promptly and should use authorized message pads for this purpose. Air Raid Wardens should practice the writing of messages by day and by night and also handling messages by telephone so as to acquire proficiency in making accurate reports.

Action for Incendiaries: The Warden must make use of the methods taught him in his course on Fire Defense in combating incendiary bombs. He should call the Fire Watchers to his assistance in dealing with fires and must report all action to his Post.

Aid to Regular Services: When incidents occur, the Warden, after reporting to the Post, should return to assist other officers and should enlist the services of available people to aid, pending the arrival of special services. He should administer first aid where necessary and evacuate persons in dangerous places. It is of great importance that he prevent panic by reassuring those with whom he comes in contact. Where the circumstances require, he must take charge of traffic pending the arrival of proper officers. Drivers should be compelled to bring their cars to the curb.

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OPERATIONS AFTER ATTACK: After danger of an attack has passed, the "All-Clear" signal will be sounded. This will consist of a two minute blast of the sirens at a sustained, unvarying pitch, followed by two minutes of silence, and then repetition of the two-minute signal. Following the all-clear signal, the Warden must be sure that the block is safe before allowing people to leave their shelters. The block must be checked for gas and unexploded bombs. He must be sure that all incendiary bombs have been extinguished, together with any fires that may have started.

It is important to be sure that all casualties have been properly cared for and assistance given to all persons who may require aid. The Warden must see that any persons who may have been rendered homeless receive temporary shelter and that shop windows and the like, which may have been broken, are boarded up to prevent looting. He must also see to it that damaged roads and streets are properly marked and roped off, and that buildings in danger of collapse are roped off and evacuated.

Report of Incidents Not Previously Reported: Telephone to Control Center reports of minor incidents handled by block personnel and not previously reported. Enter in remarks section "Record Only. Incident Closed."

Check-up of Personnel and Property: The Air Raid Warden must make a survey of the block to ascertain whether there have been any casualties among the citizens of the block. He must also check the extent of damage and destruction of property, and make proper record concerning these matters.

Information to the Public: The Air Raid Warden must inform the public concerning the extent of damage done in the block and of any dangerous conditions that may have been produced. He must direct the homeless persons to places where they can find temporary shelter, and he must reassure the public that their needs will be taken care of.

Entries in Log Book: The events of each day should be kept in a log book in diary form as explained more fully in the section dealing with the Warden's Reports and Records. Events should be described clearly and concisely.

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LOCATION: The basic unit of Civilian Defense organized against air attack will be known as a square block. Within each block shall be located a Warden's Post. This may be a single room or a suite of rooms, or a fitted-up basement, a garage, or other convenient place in connection with or near to the Senior Warden's home.

The location of the Post should be made well known to the residents of the block, and it should be plainly marked for the public by the use of approved insignia. Small signs should be placed at various points within the block to show how the Post may be reached.

Since the Post must be in operation during air attacks, extreme caution must be observed to prevent violation of blackout requirements.

Windows are vulnerable points, since glass is readily broken and flying pieces are extremely dangerous. Explosions, even at a distance, may shatter glass. Windows and other openings not required for ventilation should be covered over and kept covered.

Heavy shutters which may be boarded from the inside should be used if available. Windows which must be used for ventilation should be protected through the application of a solid sheet of fabric or heavy paper; or better, by substantial meshed wire and a heavy protective fabric applied on the inside of the window panes. Painted glass alone will not be enough, because of possible breakage. The windows should be hung with opaque curtains or draperies of material of sufficient strength, weave and substance to prevent penetration of light.

These curtains should be securely fastened at the top and sides in a manner that will not permit disturbance by wind or draft, and will pre-vent the passage of light. Heavy safety pins should be available to, close these curtains securely down the center. The curtains should also hang at least six inches below the window sill, or reach to the floor, so that upon closing they may be held firmly by a weighted rod or bar available for the purpose.

The Warden's Post should be adequately lighted and provided with both normal lighting facilities and emergency equipment in case of disruption of utility services in the block. The use of open candles or gasoline devices is not recommended because of fire hazards, but a kerosene storm lantern such as is in common use on farms and construction barriers will suffice.

Since the Post must be in operation during air attacks, extreme caution must be observed to prevent violation of blackout requirements. A procession of persons entering or leaving would allow light to project beyond the open door. To prevent. this, a light lock or trap should be constructed by hanging heavy drapery material from ceiling to floor to form a vestibule of sufficient size to permit persons entering or leaving to close off the opening before using the outer door.

If war gas is present in the locality of the Warden's Post, it may seep into the premises, particularly if they are located in a basement room, and render them useless to all persons not equipped with masks and other forms of gas protection. To prevent as much seeping as possible, all cracks and holes should be filled in with putty or stuffed with wet newspapers and sealed over with tightly gummed strips of adhesive tape. The light lock referred to above will also serve to some extent as a trap against the entrance of war gas.

The Warden's Post should, if possible, contain a closet or compartment in which supplies may be conveniently stored. If no closet space is available, then shelves or racks should be erected on which the equipment may be placed.

A well planned Warden's Post should serve as an example and guide for the residents of the block in outfitting their refuge rooms. Its use as a demonstration layout can accomplish more than several hours of oral instruction.

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EQUIPMENT OF WARDEN'S POST: The Post should be equipped with the following materials:

  • Desk and sufficient chairs for all personnel.

  • Telephone (be sure that number is listed with the telephone company for preferred service during an air raid). Approved type flashlights and extra batteries.

  • First aid kit and solutions.

  • Gas alarm devices (as available).

  • A log book or diary for recording daily occurrences.

  • Prescribed report forms.

  • Set of required instructions, pamphlets, and texts.

  • Typewriter (if possible).

  • Battery operated radio (or electrically operated radio, if the other is not available).
  • Toilet facilities.
  • Rope or clothesline, stands and signs, for roping off danger areas.

In addition, each Warden should be provided with the following equipment:

  • Arm band or suitable uniform with designated insignia.
  • Steel helmet (when available).
  • Gas mask (when available).
  • Warden's whistle.
  • Heavy work gloves.

The foregoing represent minimum requirements. The Warden should also provide an axe, shovels, a ladder, and a 50-foot length of hose equipped with a nozzle, a flashlight, and writing materials.

A large map of the block, noting all necessary local data, should be kept hanging on the wall at the Post at all times for quick reference.

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The proper administration of the Warden's duties requires that he make and preserve records, and that he report essential information to his superior officials located in the Control Centers. To perform these functions efficiently, the Warden should be equipped with the following materials:

LOG BOOK: The Warden's Post should contain a log book in the form of a diary in which should be kept a complete record of the daily events at the Post and in the block. After preliminary Post organization is completed, the Senior Air Raid Warden should enter a complete roster of his staff with their addresses, telephone numbers, and other pertinent data concerning them. A permanent inventory of all equipment and supplies should be recorded. As changes occur from time to time, these lists must be revised, so that an accurate record is always available, to assist any person who may be obliged to take charge during an emergency. At each meeting of the block organization, the Senior Warden or some other person designated, should first read the entries in the log book made since the previous general meeting, so that all Post members may be advised of any changes.

A record should also be kept of any business transacted, all notices, as well as suggestions for improvement of Post facilities. A sample page from the log book might appear as follows:

Log Book-Zone 3, Block 6

"July 8, 1942-Senior Warden Smith and Fire Watcher Jackson present 7:30 to 10:30 p.m. cleaning and checking equipment.

July 10, 1942-Regular meeting of Post assembled at 7:30 p.m. Present:

John Smith, Senior Warden
Thomas Green, Second Warden
George Jackson, Chief Fire Watcher
Walter Gray, Messenger

Meeting called to order by Senior Warden Smith, who read the log book, calling attention to change in occupancy of 418 Madison Street since last meeting-present occupant, Charles Thompson, a blind man.

Two communications from Division Commander regarding date of experimental blackout were read. Offer of Samuel Jones to provide post with a stirrup pump and 50 feet of hose accepted; equipment added to inventory. Suggestion of Thomas Green regarding trial practice at telephoning reports adopted, practice to begin July 12, 1942, between pairs of officials as designated, each to receive and send not less than 10 reports in a one-hour period. Meeting adjourned 8:15 p.m."

All entries in the log hook should be made legibly but briefly. The adoption of a concise style will be helpful in making other reports. A well kept log book should serve as the basis for discussion of ways to improve the operation of the Post.

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REPORTS UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS: Efficient operation of the Post under normal conditions can be expedited by keeping the Community Commander advised of all changes in personnel or equipment, and by making prompt response to all inquiries. In making reports, whether oral or written, clarity is important to prevent mistakes or misunderstanding. Begin each report as follows:

"Zone 3, Block 6
Warden John Smith reporting:
Subject: Personnel change,"

and when report is completed, always finish with the words "Message Ended." If the report was made orally, a written report should be forwarded by ordinary channels. A duplicate copy

of each message should be retained. Skill attained in making normal reports will be reflected when dealing with emergency situations.

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EMERGENCY REPORTS: During Attack: Upon the Warden, during periods of attack, depends the job of keeping the Control Center informed of all incidents occurring in the block, so that defense services can be dispatched where needed.

When a bombing incident occurs, the Warden on the scene should immediately furnish the Post Warden with all available data, after surveying the damage. Where an incident occurs near a block boundary, Wardens of adjacent blocks should check with each other to avoid duplicate reports. The Post Warden will then make a preliminary report of the incident to the Control Center.

After the preliminary report is made, the Warden will quickly appraise the damage, note this information on the Warden's report form, and take or send it to his Post. The Post Warden, upon receipt of the written report, will telephone it to the Control Center. He should be sure to include ALL pertinent information. If communication lines are broken, the message must be relayed through any other service available. Messengers for this purpose should be at hand. Either boys or girls over sixteen years of age are capable of acting in that capacity. While bicycles may be desirable aids to normal fast communication, they must not be used in a blackout. The Messenger staff should be thoroughly familiar with the fastest routes to adjacent Posts or nearest point of communication under all conditions.

It is essential that reports be clear and concise. Neither code nor abbreviations should be used unless specially authorized. Reports should be written out in duplicate, the carbon copy being retained at the Warden's Post. To facilitate such work, the official report blanks should be prepared in advance, with carbon paper inserts in place. Typewritten reports are preferred, when time permits, as legibility prevents error.

When he telephones the written report to the Control Center, the Warden's conversation should follow the exact numbered lines as indicated on the report form which is furnished.

By way of illustration, the content of such a report should be as follows:

CONTROL CENTER: "Who is calling?"
WARDEN: "Air raid warden reporting."
CONTROL CENTER: "Control Center - go ahead, report slowly."
WARDEN: "John Smith, (telephone number), Zone 2, Block 8, original report. Incident at 418 Madison Street near Racine Street at 12:02 a.m. By one high explosive bomb and one incendiary bomb; wind direction North. Unexploded bombs at 420 Madison Street. Fire is serious and has been reported. Sewer and water mains are damaged. Casualties are: two killed, two injured, one believed trapped, four homeless -Street is blocked on Madison Street between Third and Sixth Streets. Fire and Police units have arrived. Message ends."

The Air Raid Warden may add, as remarks, pertinent information, but he should be as brief as possible.

After Attack: Telephone to Control Center reports of minor incidents handled by block personnel and not previously reported. Enter in "Remarks" section "Record only. Incident closed."

Log Book Entries: Copies of all reports made should be kept in or pasted in the Post log book. Not only will such entries serve as a permanent record for the block, but they will also give the Post organization a chance to review steps taken during emergency situations, with a view to promoting greater efficiency. Since any member of the organization may have to take command of reporting incidents, each member should be given practice in the preparation and making of authorized reports, together with training in alternative methods of communication in case normal channels should fail.

As far as possible, all incident reports from your block should be telephoned by one person who has a good telephone voice (preferably the Senior Messenger, if an adult). That person should, of course, stay at the official post telephone continuously during air raids in periods of "Alert." He or she should train one or more qualified substitutes for purposes of relief.

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In case of a test or actual blackout, the Air Raid Warden is responsible for checking the effectiveness of the blackout in his block. He is also responsible for the conduct of the public during a blackout, either test or actual. As a test or practice blackout is only training for the real thing, people should conduct themselves in the same manner as they would under actual air raid conditions, which would be accompanied by a blackout if the raid occurred at night. In general, people should follow the instructions of Air Raid Wardens, which would be as follows:

1. IF AT HOME, remain in the house and extinguish all lights. If lights are used inside, be sure that windows are blacked out so that no lights can be seen from the outside. STAY AS FAR AWAY AS POSSIBLE FROM WINDOWS, as shattered flying glass is a great hazard. Do not go out on the street.

2. IF WALKING ON THE STREET, seek nearest building shelter. If too far away, stop and seek best shelter available. Do not smoke, light matches, or use flashlights under any circumstances.

3. IF IN LARGE PUBLIC GATHERING OUTSIDE, such as fairs, outdoor games, etc., remain seated or standing where you are. Obey all orders given by those in authority at the scene. Large movements of people will cause panic and injury.

4. IF IN LARGE GATHERING INSIDE OF BUILDINGS, such as theaters, department stores, auditoriums, etc., remain inside and seated if possible. Obey all orders given by those in authority. Large movements of people will cause panic and injury.

5. IF IN AUTOMOBILE WITHIN C I T Y LIMITS, park at curb on main thoroughfares, or when parking space is not available pull into a side street and park in a manner which will leave traffic lanes open for emergency vehicles. Lock ignition and seek nearest building shelter.

6. IF IN AUTOMOBILE IN RURAL DISTRICTS, draw completely off the roadway and turn off lights. Where the roadway cannot be fully cleared, both front and rear parkway lights must remain on as a safety precaution. This applies particularly to roads near the border of a blackout area. Remain in the car unless blackout is for long duration.

7. IF IN BUSES OR STREET CARS, bus or street car will stop immediately clearing intersections, turn off lights and open doors. Get out and seek nearest building shelter.

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INFORMATION NEEDED: The Air Raid Warden must know his block by heart, and be able to find any requested position or place in a complete blackout. He must know the exact location of all buildings and their entrances and exits. He must know the location of all tools and materials that he and his staff may be called on to use. He must be familiar with the location of neighboring Wardens' Posts, and any special services or materials available in neighboring blocks. His detailed knowledge of his own block should be readily available to all Wardens and others engaged in organization work in the block. Two suggested forms are here reproduced, one to be used for households and the other for buildings other than homes:

Classified lists of personnel, equipment, materials, and other information may be posted on the walls or filed for ready reference in the Warden's Post. In addition, a large scale map, with conventional drawings, symbols, and lettering will more quickly reveal the information desired. In any event, one master map must be prepared and hung on the wall of the Post. While the main purpose of this map will be to show the Warden's own block, it should have sufficient margin to permit the tracing of directional arrows to adjoining Posts and facilities, and necessary lettering space.

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MAP INFORMATION AND WRITTEN INFORMATION: It is essential that the following information be available in writing, and most of it should be posted on the master map in standardized form. The subjects listed should be checked against files and the master map.

All buildings, the character of each, with access doors to streets and alleys, coal chutes, catch basins, cisterns, wells, freight delivery entrances, tunnels, deep vaults, and in the cities, power, steam, or telephone tunnels (for use in the event of building collapse) should be indicated.

The character of the buildings on the map may be indicated in black or black crayon, by using broad or narrow outlines as follows:

1st class buildings (steel frame and fireproof constructions) in broad black outline with solid shading ;

2nd class buildings (brick or stone walls but wood frames and floors) in narrower outline with double cross hatching XXXXXXXXXX;

3rd class buildings (wooden frames) in narrow black outline .

Fences, barricades, and excavations should be shown with single line and proper note. Police -stations and police boxes should be located, or if there are none in the block, the directional arrows should start at the margin of the map and point toward the nearest of them and carry the address of the police station or box on the arrow shaft.

Fire stations and fire alarm boxes, fire hydrants, and even service hydrants for garden hose, private building use, and the like, should be indicated for use, if accessible, in case of emergency. Auxiliary water storage and special fire-fighting equipment, if any, should be located. Available piles of sand or earth may be considered as fire-fighting material (in brown on the map).

Special danger places and vulnerable points, such as oil storage tanks, filling stations, lumber yards, other highly inflammable material, unsafe buildings and houses, weak walls, electrical generating stations, and sub-stations with high voltage, should all be marked in red.

Hospitals, first aid posts, drug stores, decontamination stations, road repair stores, and tools, must be registered and marked by suitable symbols on the map.

Doctors, nurses, chemists, pharmacists, and veterinarians, residing in the block should be listed and their residences charted on the map.

Fire Watchers' posts, and other observation posts, as well as other organized service posts, should be indicated.

Special building wardens, although integrated in the block system, as well as janitors and elevator operators, should be listed and their posts marked on the map.

Public improvements and public utilities, should be marked. The location of main gas and water valves and electrical switches should be known. If key switches to the utilities are in the block, or controls are known to be located within the block, they should be marked on the sidewalks by painted symbols, or in the interior of buildings by instructional cards.

Public shelters, emergency places of refuge, such as protected vaults or basements, should be listed and marked on the map in blue.

Specially trained persons, useful in defense, should be registered and lists of such persons and their special skills should be tabulated. Persons of military and police experience are of great potential value. It is not enough merely to list doctors, nurses, chemists, veterinarians, and pharmacists. Do not overlook engineers, electricians, plumbers, and mechanically skilled persons.

Neighboring wardens, and their posts must be capable of being quickly located from posted lists, as well as by information in the files and by directional arrows on the block map.

Temporary shelter for strangers or the homeless should be scouted out and consideration given to the facilities necessary to take care of such persons.

Much additional miscellaneous information may be highly useful. Open floor space as in churches, halls, and schools, should be listed, as well as the character and contents of stores and office buildings within the block.

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DRAWINGS AND MAPS: Through the use of maps and charts, much information can be rapidly acquired. Moreover, an important location in civilian defense may be relocated on the map at once, merely by re-setting a colored pin. The Air Raid Warden's Post should have at least one master map prominently displayed, of sufficient size to be easily read and to show clearly the block geography and the important details referred to above under Information Needed. The size should not be skimped, and the map should be prepared at once. A rough map may be worked over, brought up to date as organization progresses, and be replaced by more professionally drafted maps later. Additional maps or charts may be made and posted as occasion arises. Ordinary school crayons of different colors should be kept at hand.

Scale: A map is drawn to scale when the measurements of the objects shown on the map maintain a constant proportion to the measurements of the actual objects on the ground. If a map is drawn on the scale of one to one hundred (1/100), then one hundred feet on the ground is represented by one foot on the map. If a map is drawn to any scale, the key to the measurements on the map may be indicated by a horizontal line at the bottom of the map, marked off in customary units in the same scale. Thus:

If a map paper four feet by five feet is used, a scale of one inch on the map equals twenty feet on the ground, and will be found suitable and practicable in most instances. Ample margin for directional arrows into adjoining territory and for legends should remain.

Orientation: The top of every map is North. To orient the map is to place the map on the ground so that the top of the map will be toward the North, and the bottom will be toward the South. If the master map can be posted on the North wall. of the Warden's Post, it will probably be more easily read, and the East and West bearings will be properly oriented. The reading position of the lettered information should be placed, where possible, as if the top of the map were the top of a page to be read. An arrow with a large "N" at the point should leave no doubt as to North on the map.

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Use these standard symbols on all maps -- they are intended to make clear the facts you and others will need to know in a hurry.

Conventional drawings should always be used. This eliminates personal variations, produces uniformity and clarity, and simplifies the use of the map by all members of the Post. The map is utilitarian, and not an object of art.

Conventional Signs and Symbols: Standard signs and symbols should be used on all maps. They will make clear the facts the Warden and others will need to know in a hurry. The Warden must familiarize himself with the approved symbols.

Lettering: Lettering should be plain and clear. If conventional drawings and symbols are used, lettering will be reduced to a minimum. The lettering should be placed in upright position, reading from left to right while the map is held vertically with North at the top. This method will not be suitable for streets, alleys, and objects whose greatest length is from North to South, and these may be lettered in the most suitable direction. An increase in the size of the lettering should be used to show the more important features. A legend, or key, to symbols and to colors should be posted or drawn on the map.

Use of Maps: Maps disclose information much more quickly than writing or printing. Moreover, the relation of units of information is seen at a glance, so that most objects are visualized in their proper proportion and surroundings. This is possible to those who are untrained in map reading, for most of us comprehend pictures and diagrams much more readily than written descriptions of the same material.

Whenever Block Geography and Block Information can be charted, diagrammed or mapped, supplementary maps and charts should be prepared and posted on the walls of the Warden's Post. The organization of the block and the position of the workers' units in proper relation to other units, can be shown by diagrams much more quickly and clearly. The language of maps is a universal language.

Posting consists of not only placing maps on the wall to be seen and read, but also in keeping the maps up to date by correcting errors, relocating posts and objects that have been changed or moved, and by posting on the map new material as the block organization is explored and developed. Colored pins may be used where locations are temporary and are known to be so. If the first master map was roughly drawn, it will be possible at some later time to improve the drawing, leaving out erasures and changes made in the experimental stage and transferring the entire map to a new sheet.

Map Reading: After mastering the conventional signs and symbols, map reading is only a matter of observation and common sense.

Continual use of map material and continual practice in reading maps creates facility, understanding, and speed in acquiring the information on the map. All Wardens should be able to point out visible objects in the block from a glance at the master map, and give the approximate measurements and locations as the map reveals them. Conversely, all Wardens should be able to locate on the map objects pointed out in the block, and be able quickly to state the direction from any given point.

Instruction to Block Staff: It is a necessary part of the Senior Air Raid Warden's duties to train the Wardens and other members of his staff in map reading and in the elements of map making. Often there will be available engineers, draftsmen, or other persons trained in map making and sketching, to whom the work may properly be delegated.

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PANIC PREVENTION: Anxiety and fear in the individual may quickly flare into mob hysteria during a time of attack. It is the duty of an Air Raid Warden to prevent panic. This requires not only attention to the individual, but also instant leadership of the group at the right moment.

If the panic stricken individual is ignored he may become tense, lose his usual mental and physical controls and quickly reach the stage of hysteria. The Air Raid Warden can often prevent this by freely discussing and describing beforehand the probable conditions of an air raid, thus preparing the public for the possible experience ahead. Sound movies of air raids are of value in such preparation. He can sometimes control the nervous individual by an assignment to duty. Occupation both mental and physical tends to steady the nerves. Idle persons are much more prone to fear than those who have a definite responsibility.

If in spite of all preparation an individual becomes hysterical, his case must be dealt with quickly and firmly. The following methods are recommended: Isolate the individual from the group before hysteria can spread. Urge him to express his fears, since a full discussion may dispel the specter of the unknown danger. Explain the chances of injury without entirely ignoring the danger, but calling attention to the fact that only a small percentage of persons are affected. Humor can sometimes be used, but never in a way to ridicule the stricken individual. Seek the help of neighbors who are known to be of a sympathetic nature.

In handling groups of persons a calm, steady and authoritative manner is likely to command attention and respect. Just as crowds may be affected by hysterical individuals, they may also be controlled by strong and wise leadership. The Air Raid Warden with his heart in his work and the safety of his neighbors foremost in his mind, will instill in them a respect for his judgment and a feeling of personal friendship for him that will cause them instinctively to turn to him in any emergency. To prepare himself for that leadership and to be able to meet any crisis, the Air Raid Warden must study the possibilities of air attacks, the methods of passive defense to combat such attacks, and the means at hand of applying such defense to the persons and property under his control. To prepare the public to meet the dangers of attack, the Air Raid Warden should inform them as fully as possible of conditions which may occur, assign duties to them consistent with their abilities and habits, organize them so they will feel they are part of a regularly constituted unit, and train them in their procedures so that their reactions will become almost automatic.

Remember that panic can be prevented much more effectively than it can be stopped.

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COMMAND IN EMERGENCIES: The Air Raid Warden service in a block is under the direction of the Senior Air Raid Warden. Other Wardens will be designated as Second Warden, Third Warden, Fourth Warden, and so on. In the absence of the Senior Air Raid Warden, the Second Warden will be in command, and the command will succeed in that order. Duties indicated in this manual as belonging to the Senior Air Raid Warden must be performed by whichever Warden is in charge in the absence of the Senior Air Raid Warden. The Warden's Post must be accessible at all times.

INFORMATION: The Air Raid Warden is the principal source of official information for the protective services in his block. He must keep in close contact with the Civilian Defense organization and be prepared to transmit to the people of his block information bulletins and to interpret and explain to them the information therein contained. Information bulletins should be displayed at the Post and may be prominently displayed in public places elsewhere in the block. It is the duty and responsibility of the Senior Air Raid Warden to see to it that important information is communicated to the proper members of the block staff. Frequent meetings of the block staff should be held, at which newly received instructions and information may be discussed and explained.

ASSIGNMENT OF DUTIES: The Senior Air Raid Warden must assign to members of his staff their respective duties. In particular, it is important that arrangements be made whereby the adequate patrolling of the block is assured during air raids. It is important to remember that one member of the staff must remain on duty at the Post to handle reports. Zone Captains, to avoid duplication of effort in patrolling streets in some cases, may work out a cooperative assignment of duties between block organizations.

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INSPECTION: The Senior Air Raid Warden should regularly review and inspect the arrangements that have been made in his block for the handling of emergencies. He must make sure that all members of his staff are informed as to their exact duties in the various situations which may arise during an emergency. In addition, the Senior Air Raid Warden should regularly inspect the supplies and equipment on hand in his block. He must see that tools and equipment are returned to their proper places after use, and that all broken equipment is replaced. Supplies must be replenished well in advance of the need for them. The Senior Air Raid Warden should make periodic inspection of the records kept at the Post, and see to it that adequate supplies of report blanks are on hand. He should inspect the equipment of his staff at regular intervals.

ADVICE: It is important that the Air Raid Warden seek and obtain advice from those services and persons equipped to furnish specialized information. Civilian Defense Headquarters should be consulted through the Community or District offices with reference to matters concerning the block organization and the assignment of duties of the staff. The Warden should obtain information through the Community or District offices concerning such utilities as water, gas, electricity, and telephone services, when required. As has been emphasized before, persons in the block having special training, such as doctors, nurses, engineers, electricians, plumbers, scout masters, and the like, should be consulted regarding matters which fall within their special fields.

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CONCLUSION: The position of the Air Raid Warden calls for outstanding qualities of leadership. The people of his block depend upon him to direct them in time of danger. They regard him as having knowledge of what to do and how to do it in emergencies, and this confidence prevents panic and fear. The Air Raid Warden must do everything in his power to justify and strengthen this trust. He is offered a vast opportunity for outstanding service to his neighbors. If he is calm and sure in his manner of handling the duties of his office and is motivated by a sincere desire to be helpful, he will be successful. Above all, the Warden must have a sympathetic understanding of the fears and troubles of his neighbors. When they become excited and difficult to deal with, he must keep in mind that they do not have the knowledge he possesses concerning air raids and their effects. Lack of knowledge results in fear at such times, and the Air Raid Warden must be able to furnish the people of his block with information to overcome their fears. By the example of his own coolness, he can do much to prevent panic in his block. In the words of an army colonel, "A brave man does not literally mean a fearless man. He usually experiences all of the fears of the average person, but realizes the danger, and loyalty and prestige prevent him from letting others down who have placed their confidence in him."

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Review Questions

(Answers to these questions may be found in this Manual. Questions are listed in order from beginning to end.)

  1. What general position does the Air Raid Warden occupy in civilian defense?

  2. What are the four main purposes of civilian attack ?

  3. In what three ways is civilian defense provided for in the United States?

  4. Three types of bombs are ordinarily used in air raids. Name them.

  5. High explosive bombs are of what three varieties?

  6. Describe the operation of a contact bomb.

  7. How does a delayed action bomb differ from a contact bomb?

  8. What is the danger from a time bomb?

  9. How large an area should be evacuated around the place where a time bomb has fallen?

  10. Name the varieties of incendiary bombs commonly used.

  11. What methods of treatment should be pursued to reduce the effectiveness of incendiary bombs?

  12. Name and describe two types of chemical or gas bombs.

  13. What are the principal dangers likely to be produced by the use of: (a) high explosive bombs? (b) incendiary bombs? and (c) gas bombs?

  14. Is there any difference between a "block" and a "sector"?

  15. What are the limitations on the Warden's authority?

  16. Name at least six ways in which a Warden may be helpful in his block.

  17. If the Warden is in doubt as to the extent of his authority, with whom should he consult?

  18. May the Warden divulge information learned from the Post records or roster cards, except when necessary for defense purposes?

  19. What relationship does the Air Raid Warden bear to the regularly constituted authorities, such as (a) police department? (b) fire department? (c) medical services? and (d) utility services?

  20. To whom is the Air Raid Warden in the block responsible?

  21. To whom is the Senior Air Raid Warden in the block responsible?

  22. What positions are to be found in the usual block organization?

  23. Draw or describe the official insignia of the members of the various services within the block organization.

  24. What information should be contained upon roster cards to be kept at the Air Raid Warden's Post?

  25. What information should the Air Raid Warden obtain from each household in his block?

  26. What should be done to prepare each household in the block for defense during air raids?

  27. How should a refuge room be equipped?

  28. What should be done to eliminate or lessen fire hazards in each house?

  29. How should the Air Raid Warden's Post and routes thereto be marked?

  30. What is the authority of the Air Raid Warden in the matter of practice drills and test blackouts?

  31. Who may order a general blackout?

  32. What should the Senior Air Raid Warden do to insure the adequate patrolling of each block by members of his organization?

  33. Describe the nature of the air raid warning signal.

  34. What are the duties of each member of the block organization when such signal is sounded?

  35. List the duties of the Air Raid Warden when on patrol during emergencies arising (a) in day time; (b) after dark.

  36. What are the Warden's duties when incendiary bombs fall on buildings in his block?

  37. What should the Warden do in the event an explosive bomb drops in his block?

  38. What are his duties with reference to gas bombs which fall in his block?

  39. What steps should the Warden take if a gas alarm is sounded in a neighboring block?

  40. What should the Warden do with reference to damaged equipment of public utility companies?

  41. What should be contained in the Warden's report of an incident?

  42. Prior to the arrival of special services called for in an incident report, what steps, if any, should the Air Raid Warden take?

  43. Describe the "All-Clear" signal.

  44. List the things the Warden should do or make sure have been done after the "All-Clear" signal has been sounded.

  45. Describe the Air Raid Warden's Post with reference to its size and location.

  46. Describe the steps which may be taken to prevent the scattering of broken glass.

  47. How may the Warden's Post be constructed to prevent violation of blackout requirements during air raids?

  48. Make a list of equipment which should be found at the Warden's Post.

  49. What individual equipment should each Warden possess?

  50. What should the log book contain?

  51. Describe the manner of making a report under normal conditions.

  52. To what place should an emergency report of a bombing incident be made during periods of attack?

  53. What steps may be taken to relay reports in the event communication lines are broken?

  54. Draw up a sample emergency report such as would be made by the Warden during a period of attack, assuming that the incident had occurred in your block.

  55. What reports should be made after an attack?

  56. How familiar should the Warden be with the geography of his block?

  57. What information should appear on the map of the block?

  58. What do the following colors mean when used on a sector map: (a) black? (b) brown, and (c) red?

  59. If a map was prepared on a scale of one inch equals twenty feet, how long a line would represent the following measurements: (a) 15 feet? (b) 70 feet? (c) 125 feet? (d) 375 feet? (e) 660 feet?

  60. About how large should be the map of the block which should be hung in the Warden's Post?

  61. How would you orient a map?

  62. Draw the following standard symbols used in map making: (a) Warden's Post; (b) air raid shelter; (c) first aid squad; (d) bomb crater; (e) street lamp; (f) fire hydrant.

  63. What use may be made of colored pins in mapping block geography?

  64. How would you, as Air Raid Warden, deal with an hysterical person?

  65. What qualities should be possessed by a good Air Raid Warden?

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